1. Schmidt-Wolf G, Cremer-Schaeffer P. 3 Jahre Cannabis als Medizin – Zwischenergebnisse der Cannabisbegleiterhebung. Bundesgesundheitsblatt. 2021;64: 368-377.

2. US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov: Cannabis studies. Accessed September 1, 2021: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=&term=Cannabis&cntry=&state=&city=&dist=


3. Di Marzo V, Piscitelli F. The endocannabinoid system and its modulation by phytocannabinoids. Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4): 692-698.

4. Woodhams SG, Chapman V, Finn DP, Hohmann AG, Neugebauer V. The cannabinoid system and pain. Neuropharmacology. 2017;124: 105-120.

5. Health Canada. Information for Health Care Professionals: Cannabis and the cannabinoids. October 2018. ISBN: 978-0-660-27828-5.

6. Horlemann J, Schürmann N. DGS-PraxisLeitlinie: Cannabis in der Schmerzmedizin. Version 1.0. 2018. ISBN: 978-3-9817530-4-2.

7. Häuser W, Finn DP, Kalso E, et al. European Pain Federation (EFIC) position paper on appropriate use of cannabis-based medicines and medical cannabis for chronic pain management. Eur J Pain. 2018;22(9): 1547-1564.


8. Sezer N, Akkus S, Ugurlu FG. Chronic complications of spinal cord injury. World J Orthop. 2015 January 18; 6(1): 24-33.

9. Centonze D. Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis spasticity: multiple sclerosis spasticity nervous pathways. Eur Neurol. 2014;72 (suppl 1): 6-8.

10. Flachenecker P. A new multiple sclerosis spasticity treatment option: effect in everyday clinical practice and cost-effectiveness in Germany. Expert Rev Neurother. 2013;13(3 suppl 1): 15-19.

11. Sativex® Summary of Product Characteristics. GW Pharma Ltd. August 2020.

12. Platz T. et al., Therapie des spastischen Syndroms, S2k-Leitlinie, 2018, in: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie (Hrsg.), Leitlinien für Diagnostik und Therapie in der Neurologie. Accessed November 9, 2021. Online: www.dgn.org/leitlinien.

13. Solari A, Giordano A, Sastre-Garriga J, et al. for the EAN guideline task force. EAN guideline on palliative care of people with severe, progressive multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2020;27(8): 1510-1529.


14. Ezeoke CC, Morley JE. Pathophysiology of anorexia in the cancer cachexia syndrome. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2015;6(4): 287-302.

15. Radbruch L, Elsner F, Trottenberg P, Strasser F, Fearon K. Clinical Practice Guidelines on Cancer Cachexia in Advanced Cancer Patients. Aachen, Department of Palliative Medicine: European Palliative Care Research Collaborative; 2010.

16. Arends J, Bachmann P, Baracos V, et al. ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in cancer patients. Clin Nutr. 2017;36(1): 11-48.


17. Martin BR, Wiley JL. Mechanism of action of cannabinoids: how it may lead to treatment of cachexia, emesis, and pain. J Support Oncol. 2004;2(4): 305-314; discussion 314-316.

18. Tramèr MR, Carroll D, Campbell FA, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review. BMJ. 2001;323(7303): 16-21.

19. Preuss K-J, von Rothkirch C. The Market for Medical Cannabis in Germany. 1st ed. Hamburg: EPC Healthcare GmbH. 2020.

20. Whiting PF, Wolff RF, Deshpande S, et al. Cannabinoids for medical use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2015;313(24): 2456-2473. Erratum in: JAMA. 2015;314(5): 520. Erratum in: JAMA. 2015;314(8): 837. Erratum in: JAMA. 2015;314(21): 2308. Erratum in: JAMA. 2016;315(14): 1522.

21. Grimison P, Mersiades A, Kirby A, et al. Oral THC:CBD cannabis extract for refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase II crossover trial. Ann Oncol. 2020. 31(11): 1553-1560.

22. German Guideline Program in Oncology (GGPO). Extended S3 Guideline: Palliative care for patients with incurable cancer. V2.2. September 2020. Accessed November 9, 2021: https://www.leitlinienprogramm-onkologie.de/english-language/

23. Berger MJ, Ettinger DS, Aston J, et al. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Antiemesis, Version 2.2017. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2017;15(7): 883-893.


24. Kesner AJ, Lovinger DM. Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and sleep. Front Mol Neurosci. 2020;13: 125.

25. Russo EB, Guy GW, Robson PJ. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4(8): 1729-1743.


26. Perucca E. Cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy: hard evidence at last? J Epilepsy Res. 2017;7(2): 61-76.

27. Rosenberg EC, Tsien RW, Whalley BJ, Devinsky O. Cannabinoids and epilepsy. Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4): 747-768.

28. Epidyolex® Summary of Product Characteristics. GW Pharma. July 2021.

29. McCoy B, Wang L, Zak M, et al. A prospective open-label trial of a CBD/THC cannabis oil in dravet syndrome. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2018;5(9): 1077-1088.

30. Huntsman RJ, Tang-Wai R, Alcorn J, et al. Dosage related efficacy and tolerability of cannabidiol in children with treatment-resistant epileptic encephalopathy: preliminary results of the CARE-E study. Front Neurol. 2019;10: 716.

31. Tzadok M, Uliel-Siboni S, Linder I, et al. CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience. Seizure. 2016;35: 41-44.

32. Caraballo R, Valenzuela GR. Cannabidiol-enriched medical cannabis as add-on therapy in children with treatment-resistant West syndrome: a study of eight patients. Seizure. 2021; 92: 238-243.


34. Maldonado R, Cabañero D, Martín-García E. The endocannabinoid system in modulating fear, anxiety, and stress. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020;22(3): 229-239.